What are the Japanese days of the month?

Most of the month days follow the pattern "Sino-Japanese number plus nichi", as in nijūichinichi (21日) for the twenty-first day of the month. The first day of the month is called tsuitachi (一日), and the second to tenth, fourteenth, twentieth, and twenty-fourth days use ka rather than nichi for the day, and native Japanese numerals like futsuka (二日) for the day, rather than ninichi. (See What are the Japanese numbers from 1 to 100? for more on native and Sino-Japanese numbers.) Also, the pronunciation ku of the number nine, rather than kyū, is used for the nineteenth and twenty-ninth.

The names for the days of the month plus kan () are also used for a period of days. For example nanokakan (七日間) is "a period of seven days". However, tsuitachi is not used in this form. Nijūyojikan (二十四時間) (twenty-four hours) is a more usual way to say a period of exactly one day.[1]

Day Rōmaji Kana Kanji Note
1 Tsuitachi ついたち 一日 Tsuitachi is the first day of the month. It comes from tsukitachi (月立ち), tsuki () (moon) plus tatsu (立つ) (to stand up), via a corruption of the sound.[2]
2 Futsuka ふつか 二日
3 Mikka みっか 三日
4 Yokka よっか 四日
5 Itsuka いつか 五日
6 Muika むいか 六日
7 Nanoka なのか 七日
8 Yōka ようか 八日 Mnemonic to distinguish yōka and yokka: Eight days is longer than four days, and this uses a long vowel, whereas yokka (the fourth) uses a short vowel.
9 Kokonoka ここのか 九日
10 Tōka とおか 十日
11 Jūichi nichi じゅういちにち 十一日
12 Jūni nichi じゅうににち 十二日
13 Jūsan nichi じゅうさんにち 十二日
14 Jūyokka じゅうよっか 十四日 This breaks the pattern of using Chinese-style numbers for the tens.
15 Jūgo nichi じゅうごにち 十五日
16 Jūroku nichi じゅうろくにち 十五日
17 Jūshichi nichi じゅうしちにち 十五日
18 Jūhachi nichi じゅうはちにち 十五日
19 Jūku nichi じゅうくにち 十九日 Jūku is more common than jūkyū.[3]
20 Hatsuka はつか 二十日 This breaks the pattern of using Chinese-style numbers. Hatachi is twenty in the Japanese counting system. See What are the Japanese numbers from 1 to 100?
21 Nijūichi nichi にじゅういちにち 二十一日
22 Nijūni nichi にじゅうににち 二十二日
23 Nijūsan nichi にじゅうさんにち 二十二日
24 Nijūyokka にじゅうよっか 二十四日
25 Nijūgo nichi にじゅうごにち 二十五日
26 Nijūroku nichi にじゅうろくにち 二十五日
27 Nijūshichi nichi にじゅうしちにち 二十五日
28 Nijūhachi nichi にじゅうはちにち 二十五日
29 Nijūku nichi にじゅうくにち 二十九日 Nijūku is more common than Nijūkyū.[4]
30 Sanjū nichi さんじゅうにち 三十日
31 Sanjūichi nichi さんじゅういちにち 三十一日

See also Where did the Japanese get their names for the weekdays?

References

  1. 「1日間」という言葉は正誤どちらでしょうか? at Yahoo! Chiebukuro
  2. つい‐たち【一‐日/朔=日/×朔】 from the Digital Daijisen
  3. 19日= じゅうく?じゅうきゅう? at lang8
  4. 29の読み at Yahoo! Chiebukuro

If you have questions, corrections, or comments, please contact Ben Bullock or use the discussion forum / Privacy

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