sci.lang.japan FAQ / 2. Grammar / 2.3. Particles (助詞)

2.3.4. How do I choose between de and ni?

Places

De

The particle de is used for the place where an action takes place. For example,

Ni

The particle ni is used for:

(1) A place where something exists

(2) To indicate a destination

Fixed cases

The verb tsutomeru (勤める), "to work", always takes ni, but the verb hataraku (働く), "to work", always takes de.

Times

The particle ni is usually used with times:

The particle de may also be used to show the time when something finishes:

References and web links

  1. A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar, Makino and Tsutsui, pp. 105-111.
  2. NI and DE from Japan Culture Study Group.

sci.lang.japan FAQ / 2. Grammar / 2.3. Particles (助詞)

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