How do I choose between de and ni?



The particle de is used for the place where an action takes place. For example,


The particle ni is used for:

(1) A place where something exists

(2) To indicate a destination

Fixed cases

The verb tsutomeru (勤める), "to work", always takes ni, but the verb hataraku (働く), "to work", always takes de.


The particle ni is usually used with times:

The particle de may also be used to show the time when something finishes:

References and web links

  1. A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar, Makino and Tsutsui, pp. 105-111.
  2. NI and DE from Japan Culture Study Group (Archived copy at

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