Other systems of romanization of Japanese

Apart from the three most well-known systems, the Hepburn, Kunrei and Nippon-shiki (see What is romanization?) systems, many other romanization systems for Japanese also exist.

The Nippo Jisho romanization

The dictionary now called the Nippo jisho (日葡辞書), originally published under the title "Vocabvlario da lingoa de Iapam", was a dictionary from Japanese into Portuguese published in 1603 by Portuguese missionaries.[1]

The following table shows the romanization of Japanese used in the Nippo jisho. Question marks indicate where the romanization is not clear.

A I U E O Yōon [1]
a i v ye vo
K ca qui qu que co ???
S sa xi su xe so xaxuxo
T ta chi tçu te to chachucho
N na ni nu ne no nhanhunho
H fa fi fu fe fo ???
M ma mi mu me mo ???
Y ya y yu ye yo
R ra ri ru re ro ???
W va i v ye vo


JSL is the romanization system used in the textbook series "Japanese: the Spoken Language" by Eleanor Harz Jorden. It is based on the format of Kunrei-shiki romanization (see What is or romanization?), with the difference that long vowels are written using doubled vowels, such as "oo" or "uu", rather than macrons or circumflexes, and the addition of information on pitch accent (see What is Japanese pitch accent?) using acute, grave and circumflex marks. JSL romanization is intended for language teaching and study.

99 shiki

99 shiki (99式) (kyūkyūshiki), created by The Society for the Romanization of the Japanese Alphabet (Shadan Hōjin Nihon Rōmaji Kai (社団法人日本ローマ字会) is a form of romanization developed from the view of romaji as a means of transliteration rather than as a strict orthography. As such it allows romanization of variant kana forms which do not currently have a romanized form. It uses neither circumflexes nor macrons.[2] See also What kana do not have romanized forms?


  1. See What is ?


  1. 邦訳- 日葡辞書 (Hōyaku nippo jisho) Published by Iwanami Shoten; 1980
  2. The Society for the Romanization of the Japanese Alphabet: 99式ローマ字つづり (in Japanese)

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