Japanese is written using a mixture of kanji, Chinese characters, and kana, characters which represent Japanese sounds. For the benefit of non-Japanese who cannot read kana or kanji, ways to write Japanese in the roman alphabet have been developed.
The most common system of romanization is the Hepburn system, known as
Another system, which is taught to schoolchildren, is called the "Kunrei" or "official" romanization. It is similar to Hepburn, but uses hats over characters called circumflexes to indicate long vowels, as in ô, and it uses fewer consonants. For example, the kana た, ち, つ, て, と become ta, ti, tu, te, and to respectively. Since Japanese sees these as being part of one group, this is more consistent, but "ti" and "tu" are not intuitive spellings for the pronunciations for an English speaker.
In the original Hepburn system, the long vowels of Japanese are
represented using a "macron" or bar over the vowel, so that the
Japanese capital city "Tokyo",
Yet another, much less common, system is Nippon-shiki (
See A table of romanizations for a full table of the differences.
Many variations in romanization systems also exist. Sometimes "dzu" is used to romanize a づ (a tsu with a dakuten). This was used for the English name "adzuki" beans, but the Japanese pronunciation of the word is azuki and the "d" is not pronounced.
The "n" sound of the ん kana before a b or p sound is sometimes
written as "m" because of the change in pronunciation. For example,
|OH SHI MIZU |
A vending machine uses
"OH" for the long vowel
Sometimes the double vowel "oo" is written as "oh", as in the sign for the vending machine. This is quite common in Japanese people's names, and because it is permitted for use in passports, this has become known as "passport romaji".
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