sci.lang.japan FAQ / 1. Writing / 1.3. Other questions on writing

1.3.6. What are the names of the Japanese non-kana, non-kanji symbols?

It's quite difficult to find out the names of the common non-kanji and non-kana Japanese symbols. These symbols are called yakumono (約物) in Japanese. Here is a table of symbols, the hexadecimal JIS code and Unicode for the symbols for computer input, and the names for the symbols.

Symbol JIS code Unicode Name or names Usage
Repetition marks [odoriji (踊り字), jouji (畳字)]
2139 3005noma (ノマ)
kuma
kurikaeshi (繰り返し)
dou no jiten (同の字点)
It is called noma because it looks like katakana no and ma).

This symbol originates from a simplified form of the character 仝, a variant of 同 written in the sousho style. It is also called noma, because it looks like a katakana "no" and "ma" joined: ノマ.

It's used to show the repetition of the previous kanji or kana character.

2133 30FDkatakanagaeshi (かたかながえし)
kurikaeshi (くりかえし)
Repeat the previous katakana.
2134 30FEkatakanagaeshi (かたかながえし)
kurikaeshi (くりかえし)
Repeat the previous katakana with a nigori mark.
2135 309Dhiraganagaeshi (ひらがながえし)
kurikaeshi (くりかえし)
Repeat the previous hiragana. For example はは could be はゝ.
2136 309Ehiraganagaeshi (ひらがながえし)
kurikaeshi
Repeat the previous hiragana with a nigori added. For example はば could be written はゞ.
2137 3003nonoten (ノノ点) Ditto mark. It is called nonoten because it looks like two katakana nos
Image: http://www.sljfaq.org/../images/symbol/longrepetitionmark.jpg None 3033
3035
kunojiten (くの字点) This repetition mark is used in yokogaki (downwards) writing, (see 1.3.8. Can Japanese be written right to left?) and it means repeat the previous two or more kana. Note that one symbol requires two Unicode characters.
Image: http://www.sljfaq.org/../images/symbol/longrepetitionmarkdakuten.jpg None 3034
3035
kunojiten (くの字点) This is the kunojiten mark with dakuten. The dakuten applies to the first character of the word. For example, tokorodokoro could be written vertically as ところ plus this mark. Note that one symbol requires two Unicode characters.
Brackets and quotation marks [kakko (括弧)]
「」 2156
2157
300C
300D
kagi (鉤)
kagikakko (鉤括弧)
These are the usual Japanese quotation marks.
『』 2158
2159
300E
300F
kagi (鉤)
nijuukagikakko (二重鉤括弧)
Japanese version of double quotes.
() 214A
214B
FF08
FF09
paaren (パーレン)
kakko (括弧)
marugakko (丸括弧)
shoukakkou (しょう括弧)
The word paaren is said to be an abbreviation of the German word for parentheses, although modern German uses the word "Klammer" for this symbol.
〔〕 214C
214D
3014
3015
kikkou (亀甲) Used to insert comments into quoted text.
[] 214E
214F
FF3B
FF3D
kakko (括弧)
kagikakko (鉤括弧)
{} 2150
2151
FF5B
FF5D
bureesu (ブレース)
namikakko (波括弧)
nakakakko (中括弧)
〈〉 2152
2153
3008
3009
kakko (括弧)
yamakakko (山括弧)
gyume (ギュメ)
yamagata (山がた)
ギュメ is from French "guillemet".
《》 2154
2155
300A
300B
kakko (括弧)
nijuuyamakakko (二重山括弧)
nijuugyume (二重ギュメ)
nijuuyamagata (二重山がた)
【】 215A
215B
3010
3011
kakko (括弧)
sumitsukikakko (すみつきかっこ)
Used in headings, for example in dictionary definitions.
Phonetic marks [hatsuonkigou (発音記号)]
2443 3063sokuon (促音) See 1.3.4. What are the systems of romanization of Japanese? for details of how to produce a sokuon character on a word processor. See also 7.2. What is that small at the end of a sentence? for one usage of this character.
213C 30FCchouon (長音)
bousen (棒線)
Indicates a lengthened vowel sound. Often used with katakana. The direction of writing depends on the direction of text. See 1.3.8. Can Japanese be written right to left?
212B 309Bdakuten (濁点)
nigori (濁り)
Used with hiragana or katakana to indicate a "voiced" sound. For example, this mark changes ta to da and shi to ji.
212C 309Chandakuten (半濁点)
handaku (半濁)
Used with hiragana or katakana to indicate a change from a hahihuheho sound to a papipupepo sound.
Punctuation marks (kutouten 句読点)
2123 3002kuten (句点)
maru (丸)
The Japanese equivalent of the period, "." or full stop. Marks the end of a sentence.
2122 3001touten (読点) Japanese equivalent of a comma.
2126 30FBnakaguro (中黒)
potsu (ぽつ)
nakaten (中点)
Used to separate items in lists and show the beginning and end of strings of katakana words. See 1.1.9. What is used for?
Other special marks
213A 3006shime (しめ) This character is used to write shime in shimekiri (deadline) etc.
2141 301Cnyoro (にょろ)
naishi (ないし)
nami (波)
kara (から)
Used in "to from" constructions in Japanese, such as 月〜金曜日 "from Monday to Friday".
2144 2026tensen (点線) A line of dots, or ellipsis.
None Nonebouten (傍点)
wakiten (脇点)
Adding these dots to the sides of characters emphasizes the character in question. It is the Japanese equivalent of the use of italics for emphasis in English.
2228 203Bkome (米)
komejirushi (米印)
This symbol is used in notes (chuu, 注). See also jekai's page about komejirushi.
2176 FF0Ahoshijirushi (星印)
asuterisuku (アステリスク)
This symbol is used in notes (chuu, 注). See also jekai's page about komejirushi.
222E 3013getakigou (下駄記号) This symbol is used for undecipherable handwritten kanji, kanji which have no typeface available, kanji which have no computer code point available, and as a substitute for unpublishable words.
Image: http://www.sljfaq.org/../images/symbol/ioriten.jpg None 303Dioriten (庵点) This mark is used to show the start of a singer's part of a song. For more details, see jeKai's page on the ioriten.
Organization marks
2229 3012yuubin (郵便) Used to indicate post offices on maps, and printed before postcodes. See also 15.1. How does the Japanese addressing system work?
Image: http://www.sljfaq.org/../images/symbol/jislogobig.gif None 3004jisuma-ku (ジスマーク)
nihon kougyou kikaku (日本工業規格)
This mark on a product shows that it complies with a Japanese Industrial Standard.
None 3299maruhi (丸秘) This means "secret".

Mathematical symbols

For mathematical symbols, please refer to 12.4. How do I write or say a mathematical expression in Japanese?.

Repetition marks

The repetition symbols described here are much less used nowadays than they were in the past. Odoriji (踊り字) and jōji (畳字), also known as hanpukukigou (反復記号) are general names for the repetition marks like 々 and ゞ. On a word processor, they can be obtained by typing dou (同), onaji (同じ) or onajiku (同 じく). See also 14.4. How can I input small kana like ぃ, っ and ょ, or づ on a computer?

Punctuation marks

Kutouten (句読点) (sometimes misread as kudokuten) means `punctuation marks'.

Acknowledgements

The list of symbols was collected from newsgroup discussions, R. A. Miller's book `A Japanese reader', several Japanese dictionaries, and the information in `skkdic.el' in GNU Emacs. Thanks to Bart Mathias, Kouji Ueshiba, Anthony J. Bryant, Jeff Schrepfer, and roxfan for more corrections.


sci.lang.japan FAQ / 1. Writing / 1.3. Other questions on writing

Copyright © 1994-2015 Ben Bullock

If you have questions, corrections, or comments, please contact Ben Bullock or use the discussion forum / Privacy

Book reviews Convert<br>Japanese<br>numbers Handwritten<br>kanji<br>recognition Stroke order<br>diagrams Convert<br>Japanese<br>units
Dictionary of Japanese food Make comments automatically Recognize simplified Chinese characters Figlet - giant ascii letters Play reversi against the computer Unix manual pages in English, Korean, and Japanese. Turn numerals into English words