Which iru and eru verbs are actually group I (consonant-stem, godan) verbs?

This page gives extended examples on which Japanese verbs ending in iru and eru are actually consonant-stem or godan (五段) verbs.

Here is some general advice on how to pick out these ones. If ...eru and ...iru words have more than one syllable before the -ru, and you can find out how they are written in kanji, whether or not the syllable ending with "e" or "i" is written in kana, or the -ru comes right after the character, will usually tell you. If the vowel is included in the kanji, it will be a consonant verb (-tte, -ranai, etc.). This doesn't work for one-syllable roots such as "mi-ru," of course. And usually, if you have what is needed to find out how it is written, you have the information you want in the same source.

Here are some example verbs. The links on the examples go to the conjugation of the verb.

Godan verbs that end in -iru

Verb (romaji) Verb (kanji) Meaning Notes
aburagiru 脂ぎる 油ぎる to be greasy
bibiru びびる to be surprised
chigiru 千切る to tear to pieces
chiru 散る to scatter
dojiru どじる to mess up
guchiru 愚痴る to grumble
hairu 入る to enter
hashiru 走る to run
hojiru 穿る to pick, dig out
hotobashiru 迸る to gush, spurt
ibiru いびる to torment, roast
ijiru 弄る to fiddle with
iru 煎る 炒る 熬る to boil down
iru 入る to go in
iru 要る to need
iru 煎る 炒る 熬る to roast
kagiru 限る to limit
kajiru 噛る to knaw, have a smattering of (knowledge)
kiru 切る to cut
kishiru 軋る 轢る 輾る to squeak, creak
kojiru 抉じる to pry
mairu 参る to come/go - humble
majiru 混じる to mingle
meiru 滅入る to feel depressed
minagiru 漲る to overflow
mushiru 毟る 挘る to pluck; to pick; to tear
najiru 詰る to rebuke
nejiru ねじる to twist
nigiru 握る to grasp
nonoshiru 罵る to abuse verbally
ochiiru 陥る to fall, sink
sebiru せびる to pester for
shiru 知る to know
soshiru 謗る 譏る 誹る to slander
tagiru 滾る 激る to seethe
tamagiru 魂消る to be frightened
yajiru やじる to jeer at
yojiru 攀じる to twist, distort

Godan verbs that end in -eru

Verb (romaji) Verb (kanji) Meaning Notes
aseru 焦る to hurry
fukeru ふける to be absorbed in The verb fukeru (老ける) meaning "to get old" acts as a vowel-ending verb.
fuseru 伏せる to hide, lie in ambush
heru 減る to decrease
hineru 捻る to twist
hoteru 火照る to feel hot; to flush; to burn
kaeru 帰る to return
kageru 陰る to become cloudy
kakeru 翔る to soar This is in contrast to other kakeru verbs which are all verb-end.
keru 蹴る to kick
kuneru くねる to be crooked
kutsugaeru 覆る to be overturned
nameru 舐める 嘗める 甞める to lick
neru 練る 煉る to knead, to temper The verb neru (寝る) meaning "to sleep" is verb-end.
nomeru のめる to fall forward
numeru 滑る to be slippery
omoneru 阿る 阿ねる to flatter
seru 競る 糶る to compete
seseru 挵る to pick, play with
shaberu 喋る to talk
shigeru 茂る 繁る 滋る to grow thick
shikeru 湿気る to become damp
suberu 滑る to slip
takeru 猛る to act violently
teru 照る to shine
tsumeru 詰める to pinch
tsuneru 抓る to pinch
uneru 畝る to undulate
yomigaeru 蘇る to rise from the dead


The advice on telling the differences was edited from a newsgroup post by Bart Mathias. Thanks to Aya Van Kerkhove for a correction.

If you have questions, corrections, or comments, please contact Ben Bullock or use the discussion forum / Privacy policy

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